Egypt History from A to Z
Egyptian culture has six thousand years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations and for millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and other African countries. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, Christianity, and Islamic culture.
Ancient Egyptian History
|Ancient Egypt and the Nile River
In ancient Egypt the Nile River enabled the creation of a civilization and later the historic unification of upper and lower Egypt.
|The Old & Middle Kingdoms
The Old Kingdom is also known as the age of the Pyramids. This period represent an important single phase in ancient Egyptian political and cultural development.
|The New Kingdom
Ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power, wealth, and territory during the New Kingdom.
|The Late Period
During the Late Period ancient Egyptian culture comes under pressure from major civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East.
|The Ptolemaic Period
Alexander the Great conquers ancient Egypt and Greek culture becomes dominant in Alexandria. The era of the Ptolemaic pharaohs...
|Egypt under Rome & Byzantium
With the establishment of Roman rule by Emperor Augustus in 30 B.C., more than six centuries of Roman and Byzantine control of Egypt began.
Medieval History of Egypt
|The Muslim Conquest of Egypt
The conquest of Egypt was part of the Islamic expansion that began when the Prophet Muhammad died and Arab tribes began to move out of the Arabian Peninsula...
|The Battles For Domination
The Tulinids and the Ikhshidids, the Fatimids, and Saladin and the Ayyubid Empire. Read about them and their battles for domination here.
|The Mamluk Sultanate
The Mamluk Sultanete was a result of Turkish migrations and the Mongol Invasion. This had a huge impact on not only Egypt but all of the Middle East.
|Egypt under the Ottomans
The Ottoman Empire ruled huge parts of Northern Africa. In medieval Egypt they had to struggle with the Mamluks.
|Islam in Medieval Egypt
In Medieval Egypt Islam was intensely expansionist. Favour for the new religion, as well as economic and social factors, fuelled this expansionism.
|The French Invasion of Egypt
Some believe that the three-year French Invasion of Egypt and its occupation was too short to exert any lasting effects despite claims to the contrary...
Modern Egyptian History
|World War One in Egypt
During World War One the Ottoman Empire fatefully allied itself with Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Nevertheless, of the 20th century's many Egyptian wars, this had a happy outcome.
|British Imperialism in Egypt
In January 1924, the end to British Imperialism in Egypt was celebrated with Egypt's first general election. But independence had its price.
|Egypt during World War Two
Egypt during World War II ...When the Germans threatened to bomb Cairo, the British government issued a chilling warning to respond in kind....
|Birth of the Republic of Egypt
The birth of the Arab Republic of Egypt was a landmark event in Egyptian history - for the first time since the pharaonic era the country was ruled by a native Egyptian.
|President Gamal Abdel Nasser
In 1956, the British finally left Egypt and Nasser was free to turn his attention to the bitter conflict that had been raging in the Middle East over the creation of the state of Israel.
|The 1956 Suez War
The 1956 Suez War. The nationalization of the canal in 1956 came as a huge shock for the British and French, who had come to look on the canal as almost their own private concern.
Modern Egyptian History II
|Pan Arabism in Egypt
In 1958, Egypt and Syria made the bold move of uniting to form a single state called the United Arab Republic. The idea of Pan-Arabism was a reality.
|President Anwar al-Sadat
Nasser was succeeded by his vice-president, Anwar al-Sadat, a companion of many years who many believed would be no more than a minor and transitory leader. Time would prove them wrong.
|The Yom Kippur War
On October 6, 1973, at precisely two o'clock in the afternoon, after a year of patiently waiting, Sadat's forces attacked to begin the Yom Kippur War.
|Egypt and the Peace Talks
In 1977, after two years of stalled negotiations, President Sadat made the historic decision to go in person to Israel to initiate top-level talks with the Israeli government.
|President Hosni Mubarak
Under Hosni Mubarak, Egypt entered a period of relative stability. Relations with the rest of the Arab world began to thaw after the years of isolation brought about by Sadat's policies.